Nasrin Sotoudeh, a prominent Iranian human rights lawyer, was detained by security forces on Wednesday, according to her family.Her husband, Reza Khandan, said Sotoudeh was arrested at their home in Tehran and taken to Evin prison, a notorious lockup just outside the city."Once, during an interrogation session, I told the interrogators that of all the services that a government must provide for its citizens you only know of one, arresting people," Khandan said in the Facebook post announcing his wife's arrest.The post did not specify if Sotoudeh had been charged with a crime or why she was detained.Sotoudeh is a well-known defender of human rights in Iran.She recently represented a young woman arrested in December 2017 for removing her hijab during a wave of anti-regime protests. Video of the young activist went viral sparking other women to remove their headscarves in public to protest Iran's mandatory veiling laws.International human rights organizations condemned the arrest and called for her immediate release."Nasrin Sotoudeh is a human rights champion who should be applauded, not jailed, for her tireless defense of citizens' rights," said Sarah Leah Whitson, Middle East director at Human Rights Watch. "Iran's judiciary again has revealed to its citizens and the international community its disdain for and fear of people who seek to protect human rights."Amnesty International called the arrest an "outrageous attack on a brave and prolific human rights defender."In 2010, Sotoudeh was sentenced to 11 years in prison on charges related to her work defending Iranians detained after the 2009 elections, which acted "against national security." Her sentence was later reduced to six years.During her imprisonment, a US State Department spokesman called Sotoudeh "a strong voice for rule of law and justice in Iran." She was also awarded the European Parliament's Sakharov Prize for Human Rights in 2012.She was granted early release in 2013 after serving three years.SOURCE: CNN LEAGUE OF JUSTICE ONLINE
We hear the term or word Arusha Accord, what actually is the Arusha Accord, what was the intention of the drafters,negotiators and parties to this Accord? Was it the Accord’s real intention to create equal or fair opportunities amongst parties or to empower one party to the agreement and to the detriment of the other? Did the Arusha Accord exposed the greed and selfishness of Political leaders in Rwanda? Was the Accord meant to create peace after a long lasting civil war between the Rwandan Government and the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). Can we safely conclude that the Arusha Accord which was meant to bring lasting peace to Rwanda led to the Rwanda Genocide? We shall soon find out.WHAT IS THE ARUSHA PEACE ACCORD?The Arusha Accords is the official peace Agreement between the government of the Republic Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front.The Arusha Peace Agreement or Arusha negotiations were a set of five accords or protocol signed in Arusha, Tanzania on August 4, 1993, by the Government of Rwanda and the Rebel Force (RPF) under mediation to end a 3 year Rwanda civil war.The Arusha Accords was organised by the United States, France and Organisation of African Unity ( now African Union). The talk began July 12, 1992 and lasted until June 24 1993.WHAT WAS THE INTENTION OF THE ACCORDThe Arusha Accord envisioned the establishment of a Broad-Based Transitional Government which would include the insurgent RPF and the 5 political parties that has composed a temporary government since April 1992 in anticipation of General Elections.AGREEMENT Under the Arusha Accord, there were 21 cabinet post in the Transitional Government, National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development (MRND) the former ruling party was given 5 post including Defence portfolio. The Rwanda patriotic front got the same number including the portfolio of interior and the role vice prime minister. The major opposition party was, The Republican Democratic Movement was given 4 post, including the office of the Prime Minister assigned to Faustin Twagiramungu. The Social Democratic Party and Liberal Party was given 1.The Rwanda Patriotic Front was granted participation in the National Assembly and was further agreed by both parties that the RPF troops would be incorporated and allowed to join the National Rwanda Army. the Accord made provision for the establishment of a military composed of 60 percent government troops 40 percent RPF. It was agreed that the transitional government and National Assembly would be established no more than 37 days after signing the Accords. The transitional period was limited to 2 months after which general elections would be held.The delegations signed the Protocol on August 3 1993 and President Habyarimana and RPF President Alexis Kanyerengwe signed the day after even though neither side did not trust the intention of the other. It is said that the Arusha Accord favoured the Rwandese Patriotic Front because of disagreement within the Government.The Opposition Foreign Minister, Boniface Ngulinzira led the government delegation rather than Rwanda President Juvenal Habyarimana. The Foreign Minister repeatedly vetoed the delegations decisions and the Arusha Accord stripped many powers from the Office of the President, transferring them to the Transitional Government. The only option left for President Habyarimana was to stall the process of the Arusha Accords. This very act of President Habyarimana led to the most horrific genocide of the 20th Century.On April 6, 1994 (24 years ago) the most unfortunate event occured, the airplane of President Juvenal Habyarimana was shot down as it flew towards the kigali airport, killing President Habyarimana of Rwanda and also President Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi, a Hutu.This assassination led to the massacre which began the next day and over 800,000 tutsi within the period of 100 days were massacred.This tragic violence of Genocide could have been prevented if only there was foreign intervention early enough to stop the signs when it was in its warning stage.According to the National Security Archive, by January 1994, it was reported that Political Parties increased training of armed militias and were distributing weapons to civilians.The Arusha Accords, was bound to fail because it abhors major inconsistencies facing the Rwanda Nation and these were beyond the powers of the Accord.The tensions that grew during power-sharing negotiations leaked into the streets of Rwanda, clearly linking the tense political discussions to outbreaks of violence. The US Embassy's Deputy Chief of Mission (DCM) in Rwanda, Joyce Leader, wrote in August 1992: "…we can anticipate a new wave of internal insecurity, in some form or another, as peace talks proceed, especially if internal differences over power-sharing integration of [military] forces become acute."Complicating the Arusha negotiations were the various splits among the political parties within the Rwandan government delegation. This is evident in various reports from US observers and the Rwandan delegation's reports sent back to President Habyarimana in Kigali. Major disagreements were: how the militaries would be integrated, the size of the overall force, and what proportions of RPF and former government forces would make up the new Rwandan Armed Forces. The RPF and Rwandan government also disagreed about how to choose which soldiers and officers would be demobilized, how to successfully integrate them back into society, and security concerns about the demobilization process.The cause of the Rwandan Genocide was more of power sharing, leadership and interest of political groups than just a mere ethnic violence and disagreement.The Rwandan Genocide is a long gone issue but the Scars remain even after it has been healed, The World learned it lessons, Africa and specifically Rwanda learned its lessons even after the damage has been done. The solution to any peaceful Negotiation is a always a peaceful Negotiation.By Lord Reginald Sagay,Lord of the League of Justice.
KINSHASA (Reuters) - Democratic Republic of Congo’s parliament will, at President Joseph Kabila’s request, hold a special session to consider legislation providing legal protection for former presidents, lawmakers said.The announcement could be a further sign that Kabila intends to step down after an election in December despite speculation that he is trying to circumvent term limits that forbid him from running again.Prime Minister Bruno Tshibala told Reuters this week that Kabila would not be a candidate, the clearest declaration yet from a senior government official on the matter.But Kabila himself has refused to publicly commit to leaving office and some of his supporters have in recent weeks floated a legal rationale that would allow him to stand again.“At the request of the president of the republic, an extraordinary session will be convened,” lower house speaker Aubin Minaku told deputies on Friday at the close of the latest parliamentary session.“We will examine several items including the law on the status of former chiefs of state, the designation of a new member of the constitutional court and the law on the tax to promote industry,” he said.It was not immediately clear when that session would take place.Under the constitution, former presidents already receive broad immunity from prosecution as senators for life.Modeste Mutinga, a senator from an opposition party, introduced legislation in 2015 to reinforce those protections in an effort to encourage Congo’s first ever democratic transition.It stipulates that former presidents and their aides will not be liable for arrest for common law violations committed in the exercise of presidential functions. It also provides for bodyguards for ex-presidents and increases in their pension.However the bill never came up for a vote.“As the initiative for taking up this law during the extraordinary session comes from those who blocked the law, we think that this time we are really going to examine (it),” Mutinga told Reuters.Kabila succeeded his assassinated father as president in 2001. He was required by the constitution to step down in December 2016 but the election to replace him has been repeatedly delayed.Since then, security forces have killed dozens of anti-Kabila protesters while surging militia violence has raised the spectre of a repeat of civil wars around the turn of the century that cost millions of lives.The special session will also select a new Constitutional Court justice to replace Felix Vunduawe Te Pemako, who was named president of a separate court this week.Last month, Kabila and parliament named two close Kabila allies to the court in moves analysts say could be geared either at securing a judgment that allows him to run again or bolstering the chances that his preferred successor will win.SOURCE: ReutersLEAGUE OF JUSTICEONLINE
Decades before the Holocaust, Germany carried out what many historians consider the first genocide of the 20th century in Namibia. German generals targeted two land-owning ethnic groups, the Herero and Nama, killing 100,000 people; and throwing the survivors into concentration camps.The killings shrunk the Herero and Nama from among the biggest groups in the country to two of the smallest. Partly as a result, the Herero and Nama are much poorer than Namibians of German descent.Now, descendants of the survivors are suing Germany for an admittance of genocide, an apology, and reparations."We hope to get an apology from the Germans," Gottlieb Kazombiaze, an Herero activist told VICE News.They also want to use the money to buy back their land. But they’re facing fierce resistance from the country’s white population. White Namibians comprise 6 percent of the country's population, but own 60 percent of its private land. They’re not happy with the prospect of giving up property that's been in their families for decades.If the Herero and Nama win, the case could set a legal precedent and encourage other indigenous groups to sue former colonial powers.Source: VICE NewsLEAGUE OF JUSTICE
June 4, 2018, 4:18 pm
today in history
1st of June 1879
Eugene Napoleon, the last heir to Napoleon's dynasty, is killed fighting for Britain in the Zulu Wars.